India officially the Republic of India is known as Bharat in Hindi and Hindustan in old Persian/ Urdu. All three names are somehow related to its geographical location near Indus River.
'Bharat' is one of the oldest name of this territory according to our ancient religious texts, which is derived from the original name 'Bharata Ganarajya'. Another theory suggests that Bharat is derived from the name of 'Bharata clan' an ancient tribe. Some other names for India are also mentioned in other historical references.
'Hindustan' came from the old Persian term 'Hindu' which is 'Sindhu' the name of Indus River in Sanskrit. 'stan' is a suffix means a place. Thus, 'Hindustan' is 'the land beyond the Indus. The term Hindustan became more common during Mughal Empire comprising primarily of North India, prior to British rule.
'India' is originally derived from the name of the Indus river and became commonly used in the English language post the 17th century. India is the english translation of Hindustan. During British rule english language became popular and Hindustan was referred as India in english.
India is a vast country having the second largest population of this world. It is very diverse from North to South and from East to West. Indians look different, speak different languages, eat different food, wear different clothes, celebrate different festivals, follow different cultures and believe in different faiths.
We have a saying to understand its diversity in Hindi. Which means "In India after every fourth step the water will change its taste and after every eighth step the language will change".
India is a unity of diversity. To understand this diversity we can take an example of a beautiful garden having various flowers of different colors, different fragrances, different characteristics, different benefits, different shapes, different sizes with different adaptations. This variety makes India a beautiful and unique country of this world.
An incredible India!!